Security Week 07: software dependency confusion

Last week it became known about two high-profile incidents in the field of cybersecurity at once. Representatives of CD Projekt Red, the developer of The Witcher and Cyberpunk 2077, reported about a successful attack on your own infrastructure (see also the discussion on HabrĂ© here and here). The attackers copied and encrypted the data on the company’s servers. The second problem for the company is not (there is a backup), but the first one can lead to various consequences in terms of reputation and further exploitation of vulnerabilities in games. Recall, a week earlier, the developers released patch for Cyberpunk 2077, which closes the ability to execute arbitrary code. Nevertheless, the developer decided not to follow the lead of cybercriminals and reported the attack publicly, even laying out a ransom demand.

In the aftermath of the attack, the company said the employee data was likely not harmed. Presumably CD Projekt became the victim of the HelloKitty malware campaign that previously affected the Brazilian electricity supplier (here previous attacks are analyzed in more detail). As BleepingComputer reports, the leaked data is already put up for an auction with a starting price of one million dollars. The openness of the game developer about the incident is welcome. It should be noted some irony in how the entourage of Cyberpunk 2077 leaked into reality.

The second high-profile event was the attack on a water treatment plant in Oldsmar, Florida, USA. Pinellas County Sheriff Bob Gualtieri reported a cyberattack on critical infrastructure during press conferences February 8. The attackers used standard means of remote access and, what is most unpleasant, tried to increase the sodium hydroxide feed by a factor of 100.

The incident was widely discussed mainly in the context of the dangerous use of remote access tools (in the described case, TeamViewer) to manage critical infrastructure. Leaked corporate address password leaks in city utilities (see tweet above). Even without them, directly controlling the computers in the wastewater treatment plant without additional security is a bad idea. Brian Krebs provides evidence in his article that this practice distributed in the whole country. And one more argument: if you fire all administrators who at least once opened remote access to the desktop, most likely there will be no one to manage industrial systems. The use of TeamViewer indicates underfunding and signals the need to comprehensively improve the security of critical infrastructure.

Because of this high-profile news, interesting things remained in the shadows study Alex Birsan on how to inject malicious code when building software that uses public repositories such as npm, PyPi, and RubyGems. Previously, this problem was investigated for uploading code with a typo in the name to the repository – in this case, it becomes possible to introduce arbitrary functions if the software developer makes a mistake in the name of the plug-in library. But this is not the only way. The article provides an interesting diagram of possible attack scenarios:

Birsan found another one. Analyzing the code for the PayPal payment system posted on GitHub, he found mentions of private libraries, apparently available only to the company’s developers. Then he checked what would happen if you upload a package with the same name to the public repository. As it turned out, the public package gets priority over the private one. Then the researcher did a field test: he found private libraries, and then put his code in a shared repository under the same name. The code contained a simple trigger to report a successful “attack” to the author.

The results are impressive. The author managed to “crack” the code (in fact, to execute his program on the local network) of Shopify, Apple, PayPal, Netflix, Yelp and Uber. A number of companies have paid Alex significant rewards, corresponding to the danger of such a hack in the real world. Experts from Microsoft Azure offer several solutions for the described problem.

What else happened:

Interesting study security cameras designed for installation in nurseries and kindergartens. Access to devices is given to parents through a smartphone app, but, as it turned out, inside all clients connect through a common login-password pair that never changes. In addition, the connection is made using the HTTP protocol.

Microsoft Developers close a bug introduced in the February patchset: it causes a blue screen when trying to connect to an access point with WPA3 authentication. In the same patch set closed three serious vulnerabilities in the implementation of the TCP / IP protocol.

Report Google Phishing provides interesting statistics on the company’s mail service: every day, one hundred million dangerous messages are blocked. Last year, Gmail analysts recorded up to 18 million phishing messages a day exploiting the COVID-19 theme. The average lifespan of a malicious campaign is three days.

Adobe closes critical vulnerabilities in Acrobat and Reader.

An interesting fact from the life of Wikipedia administrators is given in the thread above. In one of the datacenters, up to 20% of requests are for a flower photo. how it turned out, the image is loaded when the popular Indian mobile application is launched. Not only is this, in principle, not an ideal approach to creating software, but the picture is not yet shown to the user, that is, it is downloaded in vain.

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