The procession of internal combustion engines continues, with innovations appearing in them – from a variable compression ratio to valves without cams
Electric powertrains are at the height of fashion these days, but the evolution of the internal combustion engine has not slowed down. In fact, new changes are happening faster than ever.
Consider, for example, this short list of recent engine innovations: a turbocharged engine without cams; the new diesel engine with the lowest compression ratio in the world; four-cylinder engine with variable compression ratio; The world’s first gasoline engine using compression ignition.
Here we have compiled photographs of engines offering some of the latest innovations in the field of powertrains. From intelligent truck engines to tiny turbocharged models, we offer you a selection of key achievements in recent years. Scroll through the following slides to see the best of them.
The 2.2-liter Mazda SkyActiv-D engine has the world’s lowest compression ratio (14.1: 1) among all diesel engines, which has reportedly given consumers many benefits. Lower compression rates go hand in hand with lower pressures and lower temperatures at the top of the piston, which helps to better mix air and fuel, and also reduces the problems with nitrogen oxides and soot that have long been associated with a diesel engine, says Mazda. Moreover, SkyActiv-D’s lower compression ratio provides less friction and less weight. At the New York Auto Show last week, the Japanese automaker announced it was about to change its anti-diesel mood recently by installing a new 2.2-liter diesel engine on the 2019 compact CX-5 crossover.
Imagine a full-size pickup truck working on just two cylinders. This is what the Chevrolet Silverado is capable of, thanks to the addition of an electromechanical adjustable camshaft to the new 2.7-liter turbo engine and Active Fuel Management. In general, the engine offers 17 different cylinder shutdown schemes, which allows it to cope with almost any situation while driving. “It’s like having different engines to run at low and high speeds,” said Tom Sutter, chief engine engineer, in a press release. “The camshaft profile and valve timing are completely different at low and high speeds.” 310 hp engine and a torque of 471.8 Nm replaces the 4.3-liter V-6 with the Silverado.
Supercar maker Koenigsegg Automotive AB has high hopes for camless technology, which he introduced on a concept car in 2016. Known as FreeValve, this technology uses “pneumatic-hydraulic-electronic” drives to control the combustion process in each cylinder. Koenigsegg says that with these drives, instead of cam shafts, the combustion process in each cylinder can be more precisely controlled. FreeValve also allows the luxury automaker to abandon other expensive auto parts, including the throttle body, cam drive, timing, exhaust valve, pre-catalytic converter and direct injection system. According to rumors, the company is preparing technology for installation on a supercar worth $ 1.1 million, which will be released in 2020. In an interview with Top Gear, company founder Christian von Koenigsegg (Christian von Koenigsegg) said that FreeValve will allow him to build a car with zero emissions and an internal combustion engine. “The idea is to prove to the world that even an internal combustion engine can be completely CO2 neutral,” he said.
It is said that the Nissan VC-Turbo engine is the world’s first variable-compression engine ready for production. VC-Turbo has been in development for over 20 years, and it uses an advanced multi-link system to change compression ratio. During operation, the angle of inclination of the multi-link levers varies, which leads to the adjustment of the top dead center of the pistons. With a change in the position of the piston, the compression ratio also changes. The result is on-demand performance. A high compression ratio provides greater efficiency, while a low compression ratio increases power and torque. VC-Turbo is available in the Nissan Altima 2019.
The Fiat Chrysler Automobiles 3.6-liter Pentastar engine is an example of attention to detail and a policy of continuous improvement. The engine uses two key features to increase fuel efficiency and torque. The first of these is variable valve lift (VVL). VVL allows the engine to remain in low lift mode until the driver requires more power. He then responds by switching to high lift mode to improve fuel combustion. The second innovation is refrigerated exhaust gas recirculation, which is said to reduce harmful emissions, reduce pumping losses and allow you to work without knocking at high engine loads. These features provide Pentastar an increase in fuel economy of 6%, while torque increases by 14.9%. Fiat Chrysler also notes that these improvements are seen at engine speeds below 3000 rpm, when increased torque is needed most.
These days, engine performance is not just about torque and horsepower. It is also about efficiency. Toyota proved this in 2018 by introducing the 2.5-liter Dynamic Force four-cylinder engine, which reportedly has a thermal efficiency of about 40%. This is a big step forward, given that most modern engines are approaching 30%, which in turn means that 70% of fuel combustion is lost in the form of heat. Toyota has achieved this with a number of modern enhancements, including a long stroke, high compression ratio, dual-spray nozzles, intelligent valve timing adjustment and direct fuel injection. Result: The fuel economy on the 2018 Camry is 29 and 41 mg, which is 26% higher compared to the previous model.
Ford’s 1.5-liter EcoBoost engine is noteworthy because it is another example of a smart little engine that can drive a relatively large car with two cylinders. The in-line three-cylinder EcoBoost performs this task when the cylinder is turned off, which determines the situation when one cylinder is not needed, and therefore automatically turns it off. The system can turn the cylinder off or on in as little as 14 milliseconds to maintain a smooth ride. However, even on three cylinders it is capable of delivering 180 hp. and 240 Nm of torque (during the combustion of 93-octane fuel). This engine is installed in the European Ford Fusion and the American Ford Escape SUV, capable of towing up to 2,000 pounds.
In 2018, Cadillac was even more interested in turbochargers, introducing the Twin Turbo V-8 engine. Twin Turbo uses a “hot V-shaped configuration” – that is, it installs turbochargers in the upper part of the engine, in the valley between the heads. Thus, Cadillac engineers claim that they reduced the overall size of the engine design and virtually eliminated the lag of turbochargers. Used on the Cadillac CT6 V-Sport, the new engine delivers approximately 550 hp. and delivers stunning torque of 850.1 Nm.
For those who have a passion for old-fashioned horsepower and torque, the Dodge has the answer in the form of a 6.2-liter high-power HEMI V-8 engine. Engine issuing 797 hp and 958.6 Nm of torque, it draws most of its power from a 2.7-liter supercharger – the largest factory supercharger among all production cars. Along with the supercharger, the engine uses high-strength connecting rods and pistons, a high-speed valve mechanism and two two-stage fuel pumps. The 6.2-liter engine used in the Dodge Challenger Hellcat Redeye is capable of receiving a huge amount of gasoline in high-performance mode, emptying the tank in just under 11 minutes. The good news, however, is that under normal road conditions, the Hellcat is still at 10.69 l / 100 km. Dodge boasts that the Hellcat is the industry’s fastest muscle car with 0-100 km / h in 3.4 seconds.
Talk about another major innovation in the engine of 2018: Mazda has released the SkyActiv-X engine, which is said to be the world’s first compression ignition gasoline engine. By combining two classic technologies, Mazda engineers claim that they combined the high thrust of a gasoline engine with efficiency, torque and diesel response. The key to their implementation is the technology known as Spark Controlled Compression Ignition, which maximizes the area in which compression ignition is possible and provides a smooth transition between compression ignition and spark ignition. When introducing the engine last fall, Mazda reported amazing figures: torque increased by 10-30%, and efficiency by 20-30% compared with its predecessor. Mazda says the engine also offers more freedom in gear ratios, further enhancing fuel economy and driving performance.
We are perhaps the most powerful competence center in Russia for the development of automotive electronics in Russia. Now we are actively growing and we have opened many vacancies (about 30, including in the regions), such as a software engineer, design engineer, lead development engineer (DSP programmer), etc.
We have many interesting challenges from automakers and concerns driving the industry. If you want to grow as a specialist and learn from the best, we will be glad to see you in our team. We are also ready to share expertise, the most important thing that happens in automotive. Ask us any questions, we will answer, we will discuss.
Read more useful articles:
- [Прогноз] Transport of the future (short-term, medium-term, long-term horizons)
- The best materials for hacking cars with DEF CON 2019-2020
- [Прогноз] Motornet – a data exchange network for robotic vehicles
- Companies spend $ 16 billion on drones to capture 8 trillion market
- Cameras or lasers
- Autonomous cars on open source
- McKinsey: Rethinking Software and Electronics Architecture in Automotive
- Another OS war is already under the hood of cars
- Program code in the car
- In a modern car, there are more lines of code than …