About previous articles.
I have already had several attempts to write about the language and my system of learning it. I learned a few lessons, here they are:
It is not necessary to describe the system as a whole, it turns out to be confusing. You have to break it down into small pieces.
A large number of examples and exercises are needed to illustrate each idea.
Therefore, now one article will reflect one aspect of the methodology. The plans include a large structured cycle.
What questions does this article answer?
What is the mechanism of language perception “directly”.
How to train this mechanism.
How to perceive English words as Russian.
Why listening is useless.
What questions does this article not answer?
How to master vocabulary.
How to learn grammar.
How to integrate the meaning-word connection into further practice.
Invisible English Driver
English, like the TCP/IP standard, has several levels. To hack the language, you need to look at the channel layer of the stack. Let’s see how we actually manage the language.
An English learner has two main goals:
Understand what they say to you, just like in Russian;
Speak fluently, as if in your native language.
What does “understand” mean? I think the main thing here is a sense of understandingwhen, as in Russian, feel meaning words directly.
There are two points here:
What’s happened “meaning“? What are we feel?
How to make it so that the meaning arises as a response to the word immediately, without any intermediaries (reflections, remembering the connection with the Russian word, etc.)?
First, the meaning is feeling, or even perception, experience.
But the meaning is tricky, unlike other sensations, experiences, it is not reflected in the body in any way. When perceiving the meaning, we do not feel either cold or warm, there is no pressure anywhere and there are no “butterflies in the stomach.” By the absence of physical sensations, the meaning is similar to memory and on representation (for example, any image).
At the same time, the meaning is elusive. For example, we can easily manage images, we can turn them on / off when we want. But to manage the meaning in our culture is not accepted.
So let’s start with a simple way to discover the very experience of meaning. This method is presque.
Remember the situation when you ask for something to give you, but you forgot the word. For example, “umbrella”. It usually says something like: “Give me, uh… well, this thing, like her…” At this point, you get a pure experience of meaning. Which, by the way, may or may not be accompanied by an image.
So, we fixed that the meaning is a concrete experience that can be felt separately from the word.
Direct connection between meaning and word.
Our goal in understanding language is to feel the meaning of each word. That is, extracting meaning from each word.
First you need to understand that meaning can be received/used directly. Like a pointer to an object in C++. In this case, the word is the pointer, and the sense is the object that this variable directly points to.
But getting meaning can be indirect. This is similar to downcasting in C++. Then we convert the English word to Russian (translation), and extract the meaning from it directly.
Most language learning methods don’t work with meaning directly. By default, the indirect method of getting the meaning is used. Direct perception in this case “maybe” will arise. At unknown times. With an unknown amount of effort.
Technological process of obtaining the meaning-word connection.
Everything is extremely simple here.
Create an impulse for a sense of meaning
In continuation of the impulse, we pronounce the word
If these two steps are played together, without intermediaries, then the meaning and the word are connected into a single whole. Several points are important here.
First – the meaning must be taken from somewhere, and then manage to generate it separately from the word.
Second – you need to somehow prevent extraneous processes. Such as remembering a Russian word, any analysis of the situation, rules, etc. etc.
How to do this – we will analyze further in the exercises.
Exercises of direct binding of meaning to a word – “inertia of meaning”.
It’s like in sports. As long as there is no direct control of meaning, the exercises are aimed at getting a sense of meaning. As soon as control begins to appear, the exercises become more difficult.
How the inertia of meaning works.
If we repeat the same word in a sentence in the same place, then after 2-3 repetitions we will have it there expect. As if by inertia. Especially if the word is highlighted with a voice.
We read the sentences below aloud, and the word in bold is pronounced with emphasis and 2 times louder. As soon as we meet an ellipsis, we pause and do not pronounce nothing.
My family and I grow in the country apples.
Every year we collect a good harvest apples.
Every autumn we make jam from apples.
And every winter I enjoy delicious jam from
I bet that in the moment of pause, the word “apples“. Because you expected there is the word.
What does it mean expect word? This means that we know before the utterance of the word itself that it will be there. This knowledge without pronunciation is meaning. And if at this moment of waiting you pronounce any set of sounds, then the meaning will be attached to this set. And you get the desired direct link meaning-word. In our case, we had to say apples.
Of course, this is not magic, and everything does not happen the first time. But the more control over the technique of the exercise, the faster the effect.
For example, let’s do with the verb do.
We say a phrase like “I do ”, for example:
i do my job
i do homework
i do the cleaning
We replace the word sharply and without pauses do and start saying instead do. At the same time, everything else remains in Russian. That is, it turns out:
We do it in English as long as there is a feeling that we are speaking “like in Russian”. As soon as the feeling is lost, we switch to Russian, do it 4-5 times and again return to a partial replacement with English.
If done without pauses, then it is enough to spend 4-5 minutes on one word being worked out.
The most important thing
We always try before the word “do” going to talk “doing” in Russian, but at the last micro-moment, replace it with “do”. It is this effort that is the most important thing, from which control over meaning eventually grows.
Prerequisites for everything to work:
Exercise is done continuously. Such a non-stop rapper))
Exercise is done at the same pace. If there are pauses or fillings like “eeee”, “mmmm”, then we reduce the complexity (variability) of the exercise and continue at the same pace.
In the exercise, the word is always highlighted in voice, the meaning of which we transfer. And the selection should be strong. To check, you can record on an online voice recorder and see the amplitude of the spectrogram. The amplitude of the selected word should be 2 times larger.
The variety of continuations (of what exactly we do – homework, work, etc.) – it doesn’t matter. You can generally do one option and very gradually add new ones.
English words are shorter than Russian ones, and this hinders the transfer of meaning. The solution is simple: we lengthen the pronunciation of the English word. Not a short “doo”, but a long “doo”.
This is not a vocabulary exercise. This is mind control training. Once this skill is mastered, completely different exercises are done.
This can be done with all words. But not necessary. And you need to do only with keywords and endings that form language structure. Namely, three verbs and four endings.
Verbs: do, be, have.
Endings: -no, -l, -ny, -shchy.
How and why exactly these endings is the topic of a separate article. And she definitely will.
About a partial replacement for English.
Frequently asked question: “Why replace partially? Why not speak the whole sentence in English?”
The fact is that there are two modes of speaking. The first is our natural, based on meaning. The second is trained at school, based on various rules and tables. The second mode is extremely harmful for our practice. And the trick is that pronouncing most of the sentence in Russian makes us work through the meaning and does not allow us to switch to the second mode.
Techniques for amplifying and direct control of meaning.
The task of the previous exercise “inertia of meaning” is to achieve a special sensation. It sounds like this: “I’m going to say a word in Russian, I replace it, but I continue to feel like in Russian.”
As soon as this feeling begins to arise more or less steadily, you can move on to techniques to enhance meaning.
Strengthening the impulse to express meaning
Impulse is the mental effort at the beginning of any action. For example, you decide to get up from a chair. Just half a second before getting up from a chair, you need to internally “push” yourself to get up. And the sharper you need to get up, the more intense this impulse should be.
In the same way, an impulse can be created, felt and strengthened before the utterance of each word or phrase. This will certainly affect the nature of the pronunciation. A strong impulse gives rise to an increase in everything else – loudness, sharpness, accentuation of pronunciation.
In the previous exercise “inertia of meaning” we do:
3-4 times completely in Russian
3-4 times with verb substitution (do with do)
3-4 times completely in Russian. And now we increase the momentum by 2-3 times
3-4 times with a replacement and also increase the momentum
After that, one can compare the sensations of meaning without amplification of the impulse and with amplification.
We do so. A strong impulse to express meaning and we slow ourselves down for 1-2 seconds. Then we “remove the brake” and pronounce the word in English. In those two seconds, the sense of meaning should “accumulate” and become much more intense.
Everyone had this feeling in school. When your friend is at the blackboard and doesn’t know the answer, but you do. But the teacher is looking in your direction. The word is ready to break from the lips, but it is impossible to say. And it (the word) gets stuck in this pause.
The pause also helps to better feel all stages of the expression of meaning, especially impulse. For with a weak impulse, the pause becomes almost useless.
Stretching short English words, we kill two birds with one stone. The hare is the first – it is easier to feel the correspondence if the length of the words is the same. The second hare – more time to feel something. This is especially important at the initial stages, when control over meaning is still very weak.
The Russian verb “to be” is long, and the English am is super short. So we pronounce it like this:
Emphasis means two things. Loudness and emphasis. The higher the intensity of what we say, the more we feel the meaning.
With an accent, you can play smarter. You can add certain emotions. You can imagine that you are proving something to someone or, conversely, doubting.
The problem with rhythmic exercises is their monotony. Monotony drives into a trance. Therefore, the rhythm, the strength of accents must be changed. He said three sentences with a strong accent – a couple without.
So, meaning is a feeling on which both free speaking and perception of language are based. When a word is associated with meaning, we perceive it as a word of our native language.
The link word meaning is like a pointer in C++. For a pointer to point to something, you need to assign an object to it. It can be done only due to the special speaking (pronunciation) of words. Conversations with meaning.
Trying to master the perception of the language through the practice of listening (listening) is like trying to get an object from an uninitiated pointer. That is, a pointer pointing to nowhere.
In other words, if you haven’t created a meaning-word connection, then listening is useless. And if they created it, then it is already redundant. Well, only to confirm the effect.
This article has a limited scope. Because it is only a small part of the system. The rest will be outlined further in stages, one idea per article.
Step by step I will post articles with a detailed description of the exercises. Answers to all unanswered questions will be in subsequent articles.
And also I have telegram channel.