First, something about already completed high-quality transitions:
let’s start with the inorganic – there are about 80 stable chemical elements that form only 200-400 thousand compounds under planetary conditions;
then, under certain conditions, carbine (a chain of carbon atoms) arises, on the basis of which an infinite variability of chemical compounds becomes possible, the so-called. organic chemistry is already tens and hundreds of millions of compounds and their isomers of different physical and chemical qualities. This will be the first qualitative transition in our conditional classification;
on the basis of such variability, RNA molecules are gradually selected that exhibit regulatory qualities like enzymes and are capable of transmitting information like DNA. This is the so-called RNA world, our second qualitative transition.
further in development, molecular specialization appears: proteins as regulatory enzymes, RNA remains as an intermediary central dogma and DNA as a repository and replicator of information, which ultimately results in the appearance of a compartment of a primitive prokaryotic cell, and this, in fact, is the appearance of life as we understand it, which marks the next qualitative transition;
multicellular systems have evolved several times in prokaryotes, and if prokaryotes use the instability and variability of DNA replication for survival, then this is precisely what prevents them from moving to the next qualitative level in the form of multicellularity. But a eukaryotic cell appears, in which DNA is stabilized in the nucleus, the physical space of the cell for an expanded set of enzymes increases: this is how it becomes possible to build multicellular organisms, and this is the fourth qualitative transition;
a multicellular organism got the opportunity to specialize its cells within the framework of the functions of a common organism: this is how it becomes possible for the existence of nerve cells that transmit impulses – this is the fifth qualitative transition;
nerve cells form neural networks of ever-increasing complexity, making it possible to build systems for processing impulses as information: this is how the phenomenon of the brain and consciousness appears – the sixth qualitative transition, the level of animals with the brain;
based on a bioinformation system, one of the types (Homo) in a certain situation develops a language, and not just another communication system, like in animals (SKZh), which always acts only “here and now”; and language with time system, which gives the wearer a unique ability to build abstractions of space and time in their minds, or to put it another way multiverse modelsmoving in abstract time – this is our exclusively human quality level.
So, we have at each level of development a certain phenomenon or condition, which is a possibility. The realization of the given opportunity leads to the emergence of a qualitatively new state of the developing system. At the same time, all the previous stages do not conflict with the newly emerging ones, but serve as a necessary basis for the very possibility of its existence, starting from the very beginning.
What gives us our qualitative level in relation to the previous one? What limits us at our level, that is, what defines a person? Is a human only a species or biological phenomenon, under what conditions can another animal or Artificial Intelligence become a Human? What must happen in order for a Human to move to the next qualitative level, and what will the qualitative transition consist of?
I offer the answers in my book, developed from the point of view of ethics and the known facts of anthropology: MAN DEATH ETHICS in English or Man, death and ethics in Russian. The book on these sites is available free of charge in electronic form. I will be glad to comments both on the merits of the post and about the book.