Are the norms normal?

To control the state of health, you and I, dear reader, use the so-called “norms” or reference (reference) values ​​of the parameters of blood, urine, etc.

For example: reference values ​​for the number of leukocytes in the blood: 3.8-9.5 * 10nine/ l.

But are these “norms”, these reference values ​​so normal?

Alas…

At first, “Norms” are created on the basis of a sample conditionally– healthy “ordinary” people who for the most part have not heard of either a smart method of life or anti-aging. On the contrary, in their overwhelming majority they do not lead a very healthy lifestyle and they do not eat optimally (like you, for example :)).

Sometimes the “normality of norms” comes to insanity.

For example, in the so-called. analysis of biotope “Large intestine lumen microbiota” “norm” for Helicobacter pylori 232 cells / g х 105, with a frequency of 77% in this biotope. However, Helicobacter pylori causes chronic active gastritis in all (!) Infected patients. In the future, this can potentially lead to ulcers, atrophic gastritis, stomach cancer. [1]… In other words, the “normal rate” for Helicobacter pylori is zero, i.e. the complete absence of a harmful microorganism. And the occurrence of 77% means that in 77% of the examined people, this dangerous bacterium has found refuge in the pylorus of the stomach, which is gradually destroying the body. Is it normal?

Another example.

Russian “norm” for Selena is in the blood at all in the zone of increased mortality… It simply reflects the selenium status in the sample, which appears to be insufficient.

It is clear that with such “norms” we are not on our way!

Meanwhile, as will be shown below, in people leading reasonable life, “norms” are different!

Secondly, the samples for creating “norms” are often flagrantly small, unrepresentative.

And this is reflected paradoxically: for one and the same parameter, for example, blood, different laboratories have differing reference intervals!

From a logical point of view, this cannot be. This is not the case. Such a mess is the result of gross methodological errors in setting up a calibrating experiment. Indeed, with the correct formulation of the experiment, this will not happen in any way, regardless of the chemicals and processing algorithms used.

What norms do we need

As I have already noted, reference values ​​(“norms”) are calibrated based on a sample of quasi-healthy people.

But, as doctors sometimes sadly joke, “there are no healthy people, there are under-examined people.” In the case of “norms,” this is exactly the case. All reference intervals were obtained on the basis of measurements of a conditionally healthy sample. And you and I want to be not conditionally healthy, but ideally healthy. The ones they call “Ridiculously healthy adults” – outrageously healthy adults, absurdly healthy adults, ridiculously healthy adults.

Sadly, there is little research on ridiculously healthy adults.

Leukocyte formula in perfectly healthy people

A group of scientists from the Department of Immunobiology of the University of Arizona (USA) studied men and women who practice long-term calorie restriction without malnutrition. [2]…

OKBN increases lifespan in many model organisms and is considered a lifespan extension method in Homo Sapiens.

It is important that these ridiculously healthy adults practiced OKBN for a long time – from 3 to 20 years, on average for 10 years.

In fact, in my opinion, these American comrades did not have much calorie restriction. After all, they averaged 1790 ± 225 kcal per day from their healthy food, which, in my opinion, is not so little. By the way, I consume fewer calories, but I do not consider this a restriction on calories.

In my opinion, what is more important is that these guys ate very harmoniously and wonderfully:

§ avoiding refined foods filled with empty calories and trans fatty acids;

§ on the other hand, they happily ate a variety of unprocessed foods rich in valuable nutrients (vegetables, fruits, nuts, egg whites, fish, low-fat dairy products, whole grains and beans).

This deluxe meal provided them with> 100% of their RDA of all the nutrients they needed.

The percentages of total energy intake from protein, fat, carbohydrates, and alcohol were 22%, 27%, 51%, and 0.2%, respectively. It’s very close to ideal

As is evident from the materials of the Calorie Restriction Society, these wise Americans moved a lot and got enough sleep.

Those. in fact, they just lived a healthy lifestyle (Healthy lifestyle), and long time… Therefore, I position their way of being as a healthy lifestyle, and not as a restriction of calories (Calorie Restriction).

In general, super.

But!

But?

Study authors [2] concluded that “Calorie restriction in humans leads to blood leukopenia”… For they had significantly reduced circulating levels of total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (healthy lifestyle group) in comparison with their compatriots, leading a sedentary lifestyle and consuming harmful typical western diet [2]:

That is, according to the authors, the blood parameters of sedentary and truly fat people (see red numbers), eating all sorts of big macs, sugared colas and other rubbish, are better than those of Homo really Sapiens.

Let me disagree.

The existing “norms” generalize the results of measurements of people who are not intelligent, i.e. a healthy lifestyle, but just subjects prone to the generally recognized unhealthy Western diet and sedentary.

Meanwhile, the number of leukocytes (WBC) and the absolute number of monocytes – which are considered biomarkers of age-related inflammationincreases with age [3]…

Analysts from the Baltimore Longitudinal Aging Study [4] between 1958 and 2002, there was a trend to a decrease in the number of leukocytes and a parallel decrease in age-related mortality… They attribute this to concomitant environmental changes (ie, less exposure to infectious agents and / or improved sanitation) and lifestyle changes (eg, smoking, physical activity, diet and alcohol).

Also abstaining from tobacco associated with more low white blood cell and neutrophil count

The most physically active participants were in the lowest risk group and with the smallest number of leukocytes, and physical activity was inversely proportional to the number of leukocytes [4]…

Those. fewer white blood cells – more health

Vice versa, obesity associated with pro-inflammatory a condition characterized by elevated white blood cell countas well as, of course, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 [4]…

Thus, the immune system of the healthy lifestyle group can be considered younger and sturdier than the Western diet group. And the increased values ​​among “Westerners” (within the “norm”), I dare to designate as subclinical reactivation of cells of the immune system. Due to poor nutrition and inactivity.

Serum thyroid hormone concentration in ridiculously healthy adults

Total triiodothyronine T3 was 30% lower in the healthy lifestyle group than in the western diet group: 73.6 ± 22 and 94.3 ± 17 ng / dl respectively [5]… Or 1.13 ± 0.34 nmol / l at the American “norm” of 1.07-2.53 nmol / l. The Russian “norm”, by the way, is wider than the US one: 0.89-2.44 nmol / l, which can be explained by the fact that Americans are confidently ranked first in the world in terms of the number of overweight people.

Thus, the reference values ​​for triiodothyronine total T3 for (almost) perfectly healthy people will be something like this: 0.79-1.47 nmol / l

Form for conversion from different units T3 HERE

Triiodothyronine free for a healthy lifestyle it turned out to be: 1.08 ± 0.46 pg / dl, while the normal range is 1.45-3.48 pg / dl [5]…

Or 1.66 ± 0.7 pmol / l (the American norm is 2.23-5.35; the Russian norm is 2.6-5.7 pmol / l).

Those. reference values ​​for triiodothyronine free FT3for (almost) perfectly healthy people will be something like this:

0.96-2.36 pmol / l

Conversion form 3 from different units HERE

Concentration total and free T4, inverse T3 and TSH serum levels were the same for different groups.

By the way, the results obtained are not surprising. As you know, in hereditary centenarians, the function of the thyroid gland is reduced.

Blood pressure

Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the long-term non-malnourished calorie restriction (CAL) group – actually healthy lifestyle – were extremely low, with values ​​in the range found in 10-year-olds: 99 ± 10 and 61 ± 6 mm Hg … Art. Those. in this aspect, they did not seem to age.

At the same time, none of the people in the healthy lifestyle group had symptoms of postural hypotension. [6]…

Постуральная гипотензия — это состояние, при котором артериальное давление резко снижается при изменении положения тела из позиции сидя или лёжа в положение стоя.

It is noted that a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure occurred already during the first year of OKBN with a further decrease to extremely low levels in the subsequent period.

And further

Serum markers of inflammation were significantly better in healthy people, which, of course, is obvious [7]:

In addition, healthy lifestyle (OKBN):

– increased levels adiponectin and insulin growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs);

– significantly reduced levels insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, IGF-1), insulin resistance index HOMA, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, leptin;

– did not change the level of adrenal hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) [8]:

Reference values ​​for perfectly healthy people

Based on this, you can about to form our reference values ​​with you:

What to do

If you are a real Homo Sapiens, and not “according to the passport”, i.e. if you lead reasonable lifestyle, then your blood counts (and others), characterizing inflammatory processes, should at least be in the green area of ​​the standard reference values. And even possibly beyond it – in the realm of the optimum.

Parameters that grow with age must be near the lower border of “norms” or be even less.

Characteristics that decline over the years should certainly fall into the upper part of the range.

And also, as I already wrote, it makes sense to focus on the indicators of the child’s body, since it is newer and less worn.

Be healthy, young and happy! Forever.

Literature

1. Malfertheiner P, Mégraud F, O’Morain C et al. European Helicobacter and Microbiota Study Group and Consensus panel. Management of Helicobacter pylori infection – the Maastricht V / Florence Consensus Report. Gut. 2017 Jan; 66 (1): 6-30. doi: 10.1136 / gutjnl-2016-312288

2. Contreras NA, Fontana L, Tosti V, Nikolich-Žugich J. Calorie restriction induces reversible lymphopenia and lymphoid organ atrophy due to cell redistribution. Geroscience. 2018 Jun; 40 (3): 279-291. doi: 10.1007 / s11357-018-0022-2.

3. Sebastiani, P., Thyagarajan, B., Sun, F., Schupf, N., Newman, AB, Montano, M. and Perls, TT (2017), Biomarker signatures of aging. Aging Cell 16: 329-338. https: // doi. org / 10.1111 / acel.12557

4. Ruggiero C, Metter EJ, Cherubini A, Maggio M, Sen R, Najjar SS, Windham GB, Ble A, Senin U, Ferrucci L. White blood cell count and mortality in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 May 8; 49 (18): 1841-50. doi: 10.1016 / j.jacc.2007.01.076. PMID: 17481443; PMCID: PMC2646088.

5. Fontana L, Klein S, Holloszy JO, Premachandra BN. Effect of long-term calorie restriction with adequate protein and micronutrients on thyroid hormones. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Aug; 91 (8): 3232-5. doi: 10.1210 / jc.2006-0328. Epub 2006 May 23. PMID: 16720655.

6. Fontana L, Meyer TE, Klein S, Holloszy JO. Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci US A. 2004 Apr 27; 101 (17): 6659-63. doi: 10.1073 / pnas.0308291101. Epub 2004 Apr 19. PMID: 15096581; PMCID: PMC404101.

7. Meyer TE, Kovács SJ, Ehsani AA, Klein S, Holloszy JO, Fontana L. Long-Term Caloric Restriction Ameliorates the Decline in Diastolic Function in Humans. J Am Coll Cardiol (2006) 47: 398-402. 10.1016 / j.jacc.2005.08.069

8. Lettieri-Barbato D, Giovannetti E, Aquilano K. Effects of dietary restriction on adipose mass and biomarkers of healthy aging in human. Aging (Albany NY). 2016 Nov 29; 8 (12): 3341-3355. doi: 10.18632 / aging.101122. PMID: 27899768; PMCID: PMC5270672.

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